9. Depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer


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리딩 9. Depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer

1. According to paragraph 1, which of the following statements about the High Plains is true?

2. According to paragraph 2, all of the following statements about the Ogallala aquifer are true EXCEPT:

3. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

4. The word “ensuing” in the passage is closest in meaning to

5. The word “virtually” in the passage is closest in meaning to

6. According to paragraph 4, all of following are consequences of the heavy use of the Ogallala aquifer for irrigation EXCEPT:

7. Paragraph 5 mentions which of the following as a source of difficulty for some farmers who try to conserve water?

8. According to paragraph 6, what is the main disadvantage of the proposed plans to transport river water to the High Plains?

9. Look at the four squares [█] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

But even if uncooperative farmers were to join in the conservation efforts, this would only delay the depletion of the aquifer.

10. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

The Ogallala is a large underground source of water in the High Plains region of the United States.

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Depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer

1) The vast grasslands of the High Plains in the central United States were settled by farmers and ranchers in the 1880’s. This region has a semiarid climate, and for 50 years after its settlement, it supported a low intensity agricultural economy of cattle ranching and wheat farming. In the early twentieth century, however, it was discovered that much of the High Plains was underlain by a huge aquifer (a rock layer containing large quantities of groundwater). This aquifer was named the Ogallala aquifer after the Ogallala Sioux Indians, who once inhabited the region.

2) The Ogallala aquifer is a sandstone formation that underlies some 583,000 square kilometers of land extending from northwestern Texas to southern South Dakota. Water from rains and melting snows has been accumulating in the Ogallala for the past 30,000 years. Estimates indicate that the aquifer contains enough water to fill Lake Huron, but unfortunately, under the semiarid climatic conditions that presently exist in the region, rates of addition to the aquifer are minimal, amounting to about half a centimeter a year.

3) The first wells were drilled into the Ogallala during the drought years of the early 1930’s. The ensuing rapid expansion of irrigation agriculture, especially from the 1950’s onward, transformed the economy of the region. More than 100,000 wells now tap the Ogallala. Modern irrigation devices, each capable of spraying 4.5 million liters of water a day, have produced a landscape dominated by geometric patterns of circular green islands of crops. Ogallala water has enabled the High Plains region to supply significant amounts of the cotton, sorghum, wheat, and corn grown in the United States. In addition, 40 percent of American grain-fed beef cattle are fattened here.

4) This unprecedented development of a finite groundwater resource with an almost negligible natural recharge rate — that is, virtually no natural water source to replenish the water supply — has caused water tables in the region to fall drastically. In the 1930’s, wells encountered plentiful water at a depth of about 15 meters; currently, they must be dug to depths of 45 to 60 meters or more. In places, the water table is declining at a rate of a meter a year, necessitating the periodic deepening of wells and the use of ever-more-powerful pumps. It is estimated that at current withdrawal rates, much of the aquifer will run dry within 40 years. The situation is most critical in Texas, where the climate is driest, the greatest amount of water is being pumped, and the aquifer contains the least water. It is projected that the remaining Ogallala water will, by the year 2030, support only 35 to 40 percent of the irrigated acreage in Texas that is supported in 1980.

5) The reaction of farmers to the inevitable depletion of the Ogallala varies. Many have been attempting to conserve water by irrigating less frequently or by switching to crops that require less water. ■ Other, however, have adopted the philosophy that it is best to use the water while it is still economically profitable to do so and to concentrate on high-value crops such as cotton. ■ The incentive of the farmers who wish to conserve water is reduced by their knowledge that many of their neighbors are profiting by using great amounts of water, and in the process are drawing down the entire region’s water supplies. ■

6) In the face of the upcoming water supply crisis, a number of grandiose schemes have been developed to transport vast quantities of water by canal or pipeline from the Mississippi, the Missouri, or the Arkansas rivers. ■ Unfortunately, the cost of water obtained through any of these schemes would increase pumping costs at least tenfold, making the cost of irrigated agricultural products from the region uncompetitive on the national and international markets. Somewhat more promising have been recent experiments for releasing capillary water (water in the soil) above the water table by injecting compressed air into the ground. Even if this process proves successful, however, it would almost triple water costs. Genetic engineering also may provide a partial solution, as new strains of drought-resistant crops continue to be developed. Whatever the final answer to the water crisis may be, it is evident that within the High Plains, irrigation water will never again be the abundant, inexpensive resource it was during the agricultural boom years of the mid-twentieth century.