10. Deer Populations of the Puget Sound


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리딩 10. Deer Populations of the Puget Sound

1. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of the white-tailed deer of Puget Sound?

2. It can be inferred from the discussion in paragraph 2 that winter conditions

3. The word "inhibits" in the passage is closest in meaning to

4. According to paragraph 3, how had Fort Vancouver changed by the time David Douglas returned in 1832?

5. The phrase “indefinite period” in the passage is closest in meaning to period

6. Which of the following statements about deer populations is supported by the information in paragraph 4?

7. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

8. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 5 as a factor that has increased deer populations?

9. Look at the four squares [█] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

There, food is available and accessible throughout the winter.

Where would the sentence best fit?


10. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.


Deer in the Puget Sound area eat a wide variety of foods and migrate seasonally food

Your score is

Deer Populations of the Puget Sound

1) Two species of deer have been prevalent in the Puget Sound area of Washington State in the Pacific
Northwest of the United States. The black-tailed deer, lowland, west-side cousin of the mule deer of eastern Washington, is now the most common. The other species, the Columbian white-tailed deer, in earlier times was common in the open prairie country; it is now restricted to the low, marshy islands and flood plains along the lower Columbia River.

2) Nearly any kind of plant of the forest understory can be part of a deer's diet. Where the forest inhibits the growth of grass and other meadow plants, the black-tailed deer browses on huckleberry, salal, dogwood, and almost any other shrub or herb. But this is fair-weather feeding. What keeps the black-tailed deer alive in the harsher seasons of plant decay and dormancy? One compensation for not hibernating is the built-in urge to migrate. ■ Deer may move from high-elevation browse areas in summer down to the lowland areas in late fall. ■ Even with snow on the ground, the high bushy understory is exposed; also snow and wind bring down leafy branches of cedar, hemlock, red alder, and other arboreal fodder.

3) ■ The numbers of deer have fluctuated markedly since the entry of Europeans into Puget Sound country. ■ The early explorers and settlers told of abundant deer in the early 1800s and yet almost in the same breath bemoaned the lack of this succulent game animal. Famous explorers of the North American frontier, Lewis and Clark arrived at the mouth of the Columbian River on November 14, 1805, in nearly starved circumstance. They had experienced great difficulty finding game west of the Rockies and not until the second of December did they kill their first elk. To keep 40 people alive that winter, they consumed approximately 150 elk and 20 deer. And when game moved out of the lowlands in early spring, the expedition decided to return east rather than face possible starvation. Later on in the early years of the nineteenth century, when Fort Vancouver became the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company, deer populations continued to fluctuate. David Douglas, Scottish botanical explorer of the 1830s, found a disturbing change in the animal life around the fort during the period between his first visit in 1825 and his final contact with the fort in 1832. A recent Douglas biographer states:" The deer which once picturesquely dotted the meadows around the fort were gone [in 1832], hunted to extermination in order to protect the crops."

4) Reduction in numbers of game should have boded ill for their survival in later times. A worsening of the plight of deer was to be expected as settlers encroached on the land, logging, burning, and clearing, eventually replacing a wilderness landscape with roads, cities, towns, and factories. No doubt the numbers of deer declined still further. Recall the fate of the Columbian white-tailed deer, now in a protected status. But for the black-tailed deer, human pressure has had just the opposite effect. Wild life zoologist Helmut Buechner (1953), in reviewing the nature of biotic changes in Washington through recorded time, says that "since the early 1940s, the state has had more deer than at any other time in its history, the winter population fluctuating around approximately 320,000 deer (mule and black-tailed deer), which will yield about 65,000 of either sex and any age annually for an indefinite period."

5) The causes of this population rebound are consequences of other human actions. First, the major predators of deer -- wolves, cougar, and lynx -- have been greatly reduced in numbers. Second, conservation has been insured by limiting times for and types of hunting. But the most profound reason for the restoration of high population numbers has been the gate of the forests. Great tracts of lowland country deforested by logging, fire, or both have become ideal feeding grounds of deer. In addition to finding an increase of suitable browse, like huckleberry and vine maple, Arthur Einarsen, longtime game biologist in the Pacific Northwest, found quality of browse in the open areas to be substantially more nutritive. The protein content of shade grown vegetation, for example, was much lower than that for plants grown in clearings.