6. Behavior Modification

리딩 지문 (읽는 시간 45초)


Behavior Modification
Individuals often modify their behavior based on what they have learned about the possible consequences of their actions. When an individual learns through experience that a certain behavior results in pleasant consequences, that behavior is likely to be repeated. An unpleasant consequence, on the other hand, discourages further repetition of the behavior. While behavior modification can be observed in experiments, it also occurs frequently in everyday settings, when individuals change their behavior based on what they have learned about the consequences of that behavior.



리스닝 듣기


말하기 준비 시간: 30초
말하기 녹음 시간: 1분



리스닝 스크립트

This happens all the time with kids in schools.
Say, there’s a little boy or girl who’s just starting school. Well, they’re not really used to the rules about proper behavior for a classroom. So, at the beginning, they might, I don’t know, interrupt the teacher, walk around the classroom when they are supposed to be sitting down. You know, just misbehaving in general.
Ok, but what happens? Well, the teacher gets angry with them when they act this way. They may get punished. They have to sit at their desks when everyone else is allowed to go outside and play. And they certainly don’t like that. Soon, they’ll learn that this kind of behavior gets them in trouble. They also learn when they raise their hand to talk to the teacher and sit quietly and pay attention during class, they are rewarded. The teacher tells them she’s proud of them and maybe puts little happy face stickers on their homework. Now their behavior gets a good reaction from the teacher. The kids learn to always act this way in class and not behave the way they used to.



30점을 위한 해설

리딩 파트
리딩 주제: behavior modification (행동 변경)
리딩 주제의 정의: Individuals modify their behavior based on what they have learned about the possible consequences of their actions. (사람들은 행동의 결과로부터 배운 것에 근거해서 그들의 행동을 변경한다)

(리스닝 파트)
Behavior modification takes place with kids in schools. (행동 변경은 학교의 아이들한테 발생한다)
For example, kids are not familiar with all the rules in school when they are just starting school. (예를 들어, 아이들이 처음 학교에 다니면 학교의 모든 규칙에 익숙하지 않다)
Therefore, they might disturb class, interrupt the teacher or walk around the classroom. (그러므로 그들은 수업을 방해하고, 선생님을 방해하고 교실을 돌아다닐 지 모른다)
When kids misbehave, the teacher gets angry and punishes the kids. (이러한 잘못된 행동으로 선생님이 화가 나서 아이들에게 벌을 준다)
The kids don’t like this punishment, and they modify their behaviors not to misbehave. (그 아이들은 이 처벌을 좋아하지 않고 그들은 잘못된 행동을 하지 않도록 자신의 행동을 바꾼다)
Not only that, kids also learn that good behaviors such as raising their hand to talk to the teacher and paying attention during class is rewarding. Kids learn to modify their behavior in order to get a good reaction from the teacher. (이뿐만 아니라, 아이들은 또한 선생님에게 말할 때 손을 들고 수업 시간에 집중하는 것과 같은 좋은 행동이 그들에게 보상을 준다는 것을 배우고, 선생님으로부터 좋은 반응을 얻기 위해서 그들의 행동을 수정한다)


샘플 답안
The reading passage introduces the concept of behavior modification, which involves altering behavior through various strategies.
In the lecture, the professor provides an example to illustrate this concept, focusing on behavior modification techniques employed in schools, particularly with young children. When children first start school, they may not be familiar with all the rules and expectations, leading to disruptive behaviors such as interrupting the teacher or wandering around the classroom. In response, teachers may employ disciplinary measures, such as punishment, to address misbehavior.
As a result of experiencing these consequences, children learn to modify their behavior to avoid punishment. Additionally, they also learn that positive behaviors, such as raising their hand to speak or paying attention in class, elicit favorable responses from teachers, such as praise or rewards. Consequently, children begin to adjust their behavior to seek positive reinforcement and avoid negative consequences.