Using points and examples from the talk, explain the Mathematical capabilities of babies presented by the professor.
준비 시간: 30초
말하는 시간: 1분
Scientists have learned some interesting things about the intellectual abilities of babies. They say there is evidence that babies as young as five months old can do basic arithmetic that they can add. Scientists think babies know that one plus one equals two and not one. The evidence is indirect because obviously you cannot ask a five-month-old baby to add up some numbers for you.
So they devised an experiment where, in this experiment, a baby is shown a doll on a table. OK, so the baby looks at the doll. Then the researcher lowers a screen in front of the doll. So now the doll is hidden behind the screen. But the baby has already seen the doll and so knows it’s there. Well, then the researcher takes a second doll and very obviously places it behind the screen with the first one.
OK, so now you have two dolls behind the screen, right? Well, no cuz what the researchers did was they secretly took away one of the dolls. And then when they raised the screen back up, the baby, well, it expects to see two dolls, right? But there is only one there. And guess what? The baby’s surprised. It expects two but it only sees one.
How could the researchers tell the baby surprised? Well, they recorded the baby’s eye movements on camera. And we know that when the baby is surprised by something, a loud noise or an unexpected flash of light maybe, it stares at where the noise or light is coming from. And that’s what the baby in the experiment did. They stared cuz the baby knows if you add one doll and one doll you should have two dolls. So when it sees one doll then it stares because it’s surprised.
30점을 위한 분석
5개월 정도의 아이들이 기본적인 덧셈을 한다는 증거가 있음 (There is evidence that babies as young as five months old can do basic addition.)
한 실험에서 테이블위에 인형 하나를 아이에게 보여준 후 앞을 막으로 가렸음 (In an experiment, the researcher showed a baby a doll on a table and then lowered a screen in front of the doll.)
그런 다음 연구자는 두번째 인형을 보여주고 막 뒤에 놓았음 (Then the researcher took a second doll and very obviously placed it behind the screen with the first one.)
그러나 연구자는 몰래 인형 하나를 빼내고 나서 막을 다시 올렸음 (But what the researchers did was they secretly took away one of the dolls. And then the researcher raised the screen back up.)
그 아이는 인형 두개가 있을 것으로 예상했지만 오직 하나만 있어서 놀랐음 (The baby might expect to see two dolls. But there was only one there and the baby was surprised.)
아이의 눈 움직임을 카메라로 찍었기 때문에 아이가 놀랐는지를 알 수 있었음 (The researcher knew the baby was surprised because the researcher recorded the baby’s eye movements on camera.)
아이는 뭔가에 놀라면 그것을 응시함 (when a baby is surprised by something, the baby stares at something.)
실험에서 아이가 인형이 하나있는 것을 봤을 때, 놀랐기 때문에 아이는 응시한 것이었음 (The baby in the experiment saw one doll then he or she stared because he or she was surprised.)
In the lecture, the professor explains baby’s ability to add.
In an experiment, the researchers showed a doll to a baby and then lowered a screen so that the baby couldn’t see. Then, they showed the second doll and placed it behind the screen. But the researcher took away one of the dolls without the baby’s knowing. After that, the researcher raised the screen.
When the baby saw there was only one doll, the baby was surprised because the baby expected there were two dolls. The researcher knew the baby was surprised because the researcher recorded the baby’s eye movement on camera. When a baby is surprised by something, the baby tends to stare at it. In the experiment, the baby stared at the one doll.
아래 링크를 클릭해서 실전 문제를 통해 실력을 점검하세요!(리딩/리스닝 자세한 오답 설명과 스피킹/ 라이팅 고득점 첨삭)