1. A four-day workweek

리딩 지문 읽기 (3분)


In the United States, employees typically work five days a week for eight hours each day. However, many employees want to work a four-day week and are willing to accept less pay in order to do so. A mandatory policy requiring companies to offer their employees the option of working a four-day workweek for four-fifths (80 percent) of their normal pay would benefit the economy as a whole as well as the individual companies and the employees who decided to take the option.
The shortened workweek would increase company profits because employees would feel more rested and alert, and as a result, they would make fewer costly errors in their work. Hiring more staff to ensure that the same amount of work would be accomplished would not result in additional payroll costs because four-day employees would only be paid 80 percent of the normal rate. In the end, companies would have fewer overworked and error-prone employees for the same money, which would increase company profits.
For the country as a whole, one of the primary benefits of offering this option to employees is that it would reduce unemployment rates. If many full-time employees started working fewer hours, some of their workload would have to be shifted to others. Thus, for every four employees who went on an 80 percent week, a new employee could be hired at the 80 percent rate.
Finally, the option of a four-day workweek would be better for individual employees. Employees who could afford a lower salary in exchange for more free time could improve the quality of their lives by spending the extra time with their families, pursuing private interests, or enjoying leisure activities.



리스닝 듣기



리스닝 스크립트

Offering employees the option of a four-day workweek won’t affect the company profits, economic conditions or the lives of employees in the ways the reading suggests.
First, offering a four-day workweek will probably force companies to spend more, possibly a lot more. Adding new workers means putting much more money into providing training and medical benefits. Remember the costs of things like health benefits can be the same whether an employee works four days or five. And having more employees also requires more office space and more computers. These additional costs would quickly cut into company profits.
Second, with respect to overall employment, it doesn’t follow that once some employees choose a four-day workweek, many more jobs will become available. Hiring new workers is costly, as I argued a moment ago. And companies have other options. They might just choose to ask their employees to work overtime to make up the difference. Worse, companies might raise expectations. They might start to expect that their four-day employees can do the same amount of work they used to do in five days. If this happens, then no additional jobs will be created and current jobs will become more unpleasant.
Finally, while a four-day workweek offers employees more free time to invest in their personal lives, it also presents some risks that could end up reducing their quality of life. Working a shorter week can decrease employees’ job stability and harm their chances for advancing their careers. Four-day employees are likely to be the first to lose their jobs during an economic downturn. They may also be passed over for promotions because companies might prefer to have five-day employees in management positions to ensure continuous coverage and consistent supervision for the entire workweek.


30점을 위한 해설

리딩 주장
The economy, the individual company and the workers will be benefitted from working a four day week for 80% of their normal pay. (4일을 일하고 80%의 월급을 받는 정책으로부터 경제, 회사, 노동자에게 모두 이익이다)
첫번째 근거
The company would make more profit with the shortened workweek because their employees could take more rests and make less errors. In addition, without additional payroll costs, the company could hire more workers, thus accomplishing the same amount of work. (직원들이 충분히 쉬므로 실수가 줄어들고 추가 비용없이 더 많은 직원을 채용해서 같은 양의 작업을 성취해 낼 수 있다)

두번째 근거
Economy as a whole would also benefit because while working four days a week, companies can afford to hire more workers and therefore unemployment rates will be lowered. (더 많은 직원이 고용될 수 있는 기회가 생기므로 실업률을 낮추어 전체적인 경제에 이익을 준다)

세번째 근거
The shortened workweek would be good for Individual employees because they would have more free time to spend with their families or enjoy something that they want to do. Consequently, the quality of their lives would be improved. (주 4일 근무는 개인들에게도 이익을 주는데, 자유시간이 더 많기 때문에 여가를 즐겨 삶의 질을 높일 수 있다)

리스닝 반박
The benefits of offering employees a four-day workweek won’t be gained as the reading suggests. (주 4일 근무는 리딩에서 제안한 것과 같은 이익을 발생시키지 않을 것이다)

첫번째 근거
Companies may have to spend more money because it would take more time to train new workers, and companies need to pay medical costs, and would need more space and computers. (회사는 더 많은 돈을 써야 할 지 모른다. 왜냐하면 새로운 직원을 고용하면 더 많은 교육 기간, 의료 비용, 그리고 더 많은 공간과 컴퓨터가 필요하기 때문이다)
두번째 근거
Considering that hiring new workers are costly, companies may ask the existing employees to work overtime or expect their employees do the same amount of work in four work days as they would do in five work days. If so, there would not be additional employment. (새로운 직원을 채용하는 게 비용이 많이 들기 때문에 회사는 기존의 직원들에게 시간외 근무를 하도록 하거나 4일 안에 5일치 일을 끝내도록 강요할 것이다)
세번째 근거
There are many disadvantages for employees to work shorter weeks. Employees’ job security is not guaranteed because the company might fire them. In addition, they may miss chances for promotions by working shorter weeks because the company probably prefers employees who could supervise for the entire workweek. (주 4일 근무하는 직원들의 직업 안정성은 보장되지 않으며 회사에서 승진의 기회도 적어질 것이다. 왜냐하면 회사가 사정이 어려워지면, 주 4일 근무하는 직원을 먼저 해고할 가능성이 있으며, 승진시에는 주 5일 근무하는 사람들을 선호하기 때문이다)