2. A group of people into a team

리딩 지문 읽기 (3분)

In many organizations, perhaps the best way to approach certain new projects is to assemble a group of people into a team. Having a team of people attack a project offers several advantages.

First of all, a group of people has a wider range of knowledge, expertise, and skills than any single individual is likely to possess. Also, because of the numbers of people involved and the greater resources they possess, a group can work more quickly in response to the task assigned to it and can come up with highly creative solutions to problems and issues.

Sometimes these creative solutions come about because a group is more likely to make risky decisions that an individual might not undertake. This is because the group spreads responsibility for a decision to all the members and thus no single individual can be held accountable if the decision turns out to be wrong.

Taking part in a group process can be very rewarding for members of the team. Team members who have a voice in making a decision will no doubt feel better about carrying out the work that is entailed by the decision than they might doing work that is imposed on them by others. Also, the individual team member has a much better chance to “shine”, to get his or her contributions and ideas not only recognized but recognized as highly significant, because a team’s overall results can be more far-reaching and have greater impact than what might have otherwise been possible for the person to accomplish or contribute working alone.


리스닝 듣기



리스닝 스크립트

Now I want to tell you about what one company found when it decided that it would turn over some of its new projects to teams of people, and make the team responsible for planning the projects and getting the work done. After about six months, the company took a look at how well the teams performed.
On virtually every team, some members got almost a “free ride.” They didn’t contribute much at all, but if their team did a good job, they nevertheless benefited from the recognition the team got. And what about group members who worked especially well and who provided a lot of insight on problems and issues? Well…the recognition for a job well done went to the group as a whole, no names were named. So it won’t surprise you to learn that when the real contributors were asked how they felt about the group process, their attitude was just the opposite of what the reading predicts.
Another finding was that some projects just didn’t move very quickly. Why? Because it took so long to reach consensus; it took many, many meetings to build the agreement among group members about how they would move the project along. On the other hand, there were other instances where one or two people managed to become very influential over what their group did. Sometimes when those influencers said “That will never work” about an idea the group was developing, the idea was quickly dropped instead of being further discussed.
And then there was another occasion when a couple influencers convinced the group that a plan of theirs was “highly creative.” And even though some members tried to warn the rest of the group that the project was moving in directions that might not work, they were basically ignored by other group members. Can you guess the ending to this story? When the project failed, the blame was placed on all the members of the group.



30점을 위한 해설

리딩 주제
There are some advantages of working in a group for a project. (프로젝트를 그룹으로 작업하는 것은 이점이 있다)

첫번째 근거
First, given that each individual in a group possesses different skills and expertise, the group could work quickly and produce creative solutions to problems. (개개인 각각은 다른 기술과 전문 지식을 가지고 있으므로 그룹은 더 빠르게 작업할 수 있고 문제에 직면했을 때 창조적인 해결책을 찾을 수 있다)

두번째 근거
Secondly, considering how groups tend to make more risky decisions than individuals do, the group might come up with many more creative solutions. (그룹은 더 위험성이 있는 결정을 하는 경향이 있으므로 그룹으로 일하면 더 창조적인 해결책이 나올 수 있다)

세번째 근거
Third, participating in a group processes can benefit group members. Each member could perform work better when his or her voice is reflected, which improves the efficiency of work. Furthermore, because a team’s overall accomplishment is likely to be greater than an individual’s, each individual could accomplish more in a group rather than working alone. (그룹으로 일하는 과정에서 각각의 개인들은 이익을 얻을 수 있다. 어떤 개인은 자신의 의견이 반영되었을 때 일을 더 열심히 하기 때문에 효율성이 높아진다. 또한 그룹 전체의 성취는 개개인의 성취보다 크기 때문에 각 개인들이 혼자 일할때 보다 더 많은 성취를 할 수 있다)

리스닝 반박
Forming a group of people to work together for a project can be a bad idea and this was evident when the company took a look at how well the teams performed.
(프로젝트를 그룹으로 하는 것은 좋은 생각이 아니며 이것은 어떤 회사가 그룹을 형성해서 작업을 했을 때의 결과를 보면 명백해진다)

첫번째 근거
First, there was a problem with fairness. There were free riders who didn’t contribute at all but received the same credit as the members who came up with great ideas and worked hard. (공정성의 문제가 있다. 그룹에 기여하지 않은 멤버가 아이디어를 내고 열심히 일한 멤버와 똑같은 보상을 받았다)

두번째 근거
Second, there was a problem with time management because it took a lot of time to reach a consensus among group members. Sometimes, a few influential members in the groups decided on dropping some ideas the group was developing. (일의 속도에 문제가 있었다. 왜냐하면 그룹 멤버들이 합의에 이르는데 많은 시간이 걸렸기 때문이다. 때로는 몇몇의 영향력있는 회원들이 그 그룹이 진행하고 있는 아이디어들을 폐기해 버리기도 했다)

세번째 근거
Third, some influential group members may decide the direction of the project, which might not work well, and when the project was not successful, all group members were blamed. (몇몇 영향력있는 멤버들이 잘 될 것 같지 않은 프로젝트의 방향을 결정했고 그 프로젝트가 성공하지 못했을 때 모든 그룹 멤버들이 함께 책임져야 했다)