5. The Chaco structures

리딩 지문 읽기 (3분)


As early as the twelfth century A.D., the settlements of Chaco Canyon in New Mexico in the American Southwest were notable for their “great houses,” massive stone buildings that contain hundreds of rooms and often stand three or four stories high. Archaeologists have been trying to determine how the buildings were used. While there is still no universally agreed upon explanation, there are three competing theories.
One theory holds that the Chaco structures were purely residential, with each housing hundreds of people. Supporters of this theory have interpreted Chaco great houses as earlier versions of the architecture seen in more recent Southwest societies. In particular, the Chaco houses appear strikingly similar to the large, well-known “apartment buildings” at Taos, New Mexico, in which many people have been living for centuries.
A second theory contends that the Chaco structures were used to store food supplies. One of the main crops of the Chaco people was grain maize, which could be stored for long periods of time without spoiling and could serve as a long-lasting supply of food. The supplies of maize had to be stored somewhere, and the size of the great houses would make them very suitable for the purpose.
A third theory proposes that houses were used as ceremonial centers. Close to one house, called Pueblo Alto, archaeologists identified an enormous mound formed by a pile of old material. Excavations of the mound revealed deposits containing a surprisingly large number of broken pots. This finding has been interpreted as evidence that people gathered at Pueblo Alto for special ceremonies. At the ceremonies, they ate festive meals and then discarded the pots in which the meals had been prepared or served. Such ceremonies have been documented for other Native American cultures.


리스닝 듣기



리스닝 스크립트

Unfortunately none of the arguments about what the Chaco great houses were used for is convincing.
First, sure, from the outside, the great houses look like later and Native American apartment buildings but the inside of the great houses casts serious doubt on the idea that many people lived there. I’ll explain. If hundreds of people were living in the great houses, then there would have to be many fireplaces, where each family did its daily cooking, but there are very few fireplaces. In one of the largest great houses, there were fireplaces for only around ten families. Yet there were enough rooms in the great house for more than a hundred families, so the primary function of the houses couldn’t have been residential.
Second, the idea that the great houses were used to store grain maize; unsupported by evidence. It may sound plausible that large empty rooms were used for storage, but excavations of the great houses have not uncovered many traces of maize or maize containers. If the great houses were used for storage, why isn’t there more spilled maize on the floor? Why aren’t there more remains of big containers?
Third, the idea that the great houses were ceremonial centers isn’t well supported either. You know that mound at Pueblo Alto? It contains lots of other materials besides broken pots, stuff you wouldn’t expect from ceremonies. For example, there are large quantities of building materials, sands, stones, even construction tools. This suggests that the mound is just a trash heap of construction material, stuff that was thrown away or not used up when a house was being built. The pots in the pile could be regular trash too, leftover from the meals of the construction workers. So the Pueblo Alto mound is not good evidence that the great houses were used for special ceremonies.


30점을 위한 분석

(리딩 주장)
There are three competing theories about the usage of the massive stone buildings of Chaco Canyon in New Mexico. (멕시코의 차코 캐넌에 있는 거대한 돌 빌딩들이 어떻게 사용되었는지에 대한 세가지의 이론이 있다)

첫번째 이론
One theory says that considering that the appearance of the Chaco house is similar to apartment buildings at Taos New Mexico, the stone buildings were residential. (하나의 이론에 따르면, 차코 집의 모습이 뉴 멕시코의 타오스에 있는 아파트와 비슷하다는 점을 고려하면, 차코 집은 주거지였을 것이다)

두번째 이론
The second theory argues that the Chaco structures were used to store food supplies judging from the size of the great houses. (두번째 이론에 따르면, 집의 크기로 판단해 보면 차코 구조들이 음식을 저장하는데 이용되었을 것이다)

세번째 이론
Based on the excavation of a number of broken pots, a third theory states that the houses were ceremonial centers. (수많은 깨진 항아리의 발굴에 근거해 보면, 이 집들이 제식이 열렸던 장소였을 것이다)

리스닝 반박
The arguments in the reading passages are not convincing. (리딩의 주장들은 설득력이 없다)

첫번째 근거
The building could not be residential because there were not many fireplaces, which can be evidence of people living there. (빌딩은 주거지가 아니었다. 왜냐하면 거기에 많은 사람들이 살았다는 증거인 벽난로가 많지 않았기 때문이다)

두번째 근거
Not many traces of maze or maize containers were discovered, which indicates that the buildings are not for storage. (옥수수나 옥수수를 담은 그릇의 흔적이 별로 발견되지 않았다. 이것은 그 빌딩이 저장을 위한 곳이 아니었다는 것을 알려주는 것이다)

세번째 근거
The discovery of broken pots cannot support the argument that the building were used for ceremonial centers because besides broken pots, many other objects, including building material and sand, were excavated there. These materials were not related to ceremonies. (깨진 항아리의 발견이 그 빌딩이 제식이 열렸던 곳이었다는 것을 지지해 주지는 못한다. 왜냐하면 깨진 항아리외에도 건설 재료나 모래를 포함한 다른 물질들도 발굴되었는데 이런 물질들은 제식과 관련이 없다)