7. Ecocertification

리딩 지문 읽기 (3분)


In an effort to encourage ecologically sustainable forestry practices, an international organization started issuing certifications to wood companies that meet high ecological standards by conserving resources and recycling materials. Companies that receive this certification can attract customers by advertising their products as ecocertified. Around the world, many wood companies have adopted new, ecologically friendly practices in order to receive ecocertification. However, it is unlikely that wood companies in the United States will do the same, for several reasons.

First, American consumers are exposed to so much advertising that they would not value or even pay attention to the ecocertification label. Because so many mediocre products are labeled ‘new” or improved,” American consumers do not place much trust in advertising claims in general.
Second, ecocertified wood will be more expensive than uncertified wood because in order to earn ecocertification, a wood company must pay to have its business examined by a certification agency. This additional cost gets passed on to consumers-American consumers tend to be strongly motivated by price, and therefore they are likely to choose cheaper uncertified wood products. Accordingly, American wood companies will prefer to keep their prices low rather than obtain ecocertification
Third, although some people claim that it always makes good business sense for American companies to keep up with the developments in the rest of the world, this argument is not convincing. Pursuing certification would make sense for American wood companies only if they marketed most of their products abroad. But that is not the case, American wood businesses sell most of their products in the United States, catering to a very large customer base that is satisfied with the merchandise.


리스닝 듣기



리스닝 스크립트

Well, despite what many people say, there is a good reason to think that many American wood companies will eventually seek eco-certification for the wood products.

First off, companies in the United States don’t treat all advertising the same. They distinguish between advertising claims that companies make about their own products and claims made by independent certification agencies. Americans have a lot of confidence in independent agencies. Thus ecologically-minded Americans are likely to react very favorably to wood products ecologically certified by independent organization with an international reputation for trustworthiness.
Second point, of course it is true that American consumers care a lot about price, who doesn’t? But studies of how consumers make decisions show that price alone determines consumers’ decisions only when the price of one competing products is much higher or lower than the other. When the difference between two products is small, say, less than 5 percent, as is the case with certified wood, American often do choose on factories other than price. And Americans are becoming increasingly convinced of the value of preserving and protecting the environment.
And third, U.S wood companies should definitely pay attention what is going on in the wood business internationally. Not because of foreign consumers but because of foreign competition. As I just told you, there is a good chance that many American consumers will be interested in eco-certified products, and guess why? If American companies are slow capturing those consumers, you can be sure that foreign companies will soon start crowding into the American markets, offering eco-certified wood that domestic companies don’t.


30점을 위한 분석

리딩 주장
Companies in the United States are not likely to adopt the eco-certification that international organizations issue. (미국의 회사들은 국제 기관에서 발행하는 친환경 인증서를 채택하지 않을 것이다)

첫번째 근거
First, American consumers tend not to believe in claims made by advertisements and thus, eco-certified products would not attract consumers.
(첫째, 미국 소비자들은 광고의 주장을 믿지 않는 경향이 있다. 그래서 친환경이라고 인증된 상품이 소비자를 끌어들이지 못할 것이다)

두번째 근거
Secondly, American consumers prefer low-priced products and eco-certified products are more expensive. Therefore, companies in the United States are less likely to apply for the certification.
(둘째, 미국 소비자들은 저렴한 가격의 상품을 선호한다. 친환경 인증된 상품은 더 비쌈으로 미국 회사들은 그 인증서를 따려 하지 않을 것이다)

세번째 근거
And lastly, since American wood companies do well domestically, considering that the eco-certification will work well in international markets, it is not necessary for American wood companies to have the certification.
(셋째, 친환경 인증서는 국제 시장에 적용된다. 대부분 미국 나무 회사들은 자국 내에서 거래하기 때문에 친환경 인증서가 필요하지 않다)


리스닝 반박
Despite what many people say, there is good reason to believe that many American wood companies will eventually seek the eco-certification for their wood products.
(미국 나무 회사들은 결국 친환경 인증서를 취득할 것이다)

첫번째 근거
First, eco-certifications are issued by an independent agency, providing a lot of trust to American consumers. There are Americans who are ecologically conscious and therefore are likely to buy eco-certified products.
(첫째, 친환경 인증서는 독립 에이전트에 의해 발행되므로 많은 미국 소비자들에게 신뢰를 줄 것이고 친환경적 생각이 있는 미국인들은 친환경적인 상품을 구매할 것이다)

두번째 근거
Secondly, when the difference of price between two products is not significant, price will not prevent American consumers from buying higher priced products. So, Americans who are interested in protecting the environment would not mind buying eco-certified products that are a little more expensive.
(둘째, 두 상품의 가격 차이가 많지 않다면 미국 소비자는 좀 더 높은 가격의 상품을 살 수 있다. 그래서 환경을 보호하는데 관심이 있는 미국 사람들은 친환경으로 인증되지 않은 상품보다 조금 더 비싼 친환경으로 인증된 상품을 사는 것을 꺼리지 않을 것이다)

세번째 근거
Thirdly, as many American consumers become well aware of eco-certified products, foreign companies that sell eco-certified products will outcompete American companies that do not offer eco-certified products in the American markets.
(셋째, 많은 미국 소비자들이 점점 친환경 인정된 상품에 대한 인식을 가지면서, 친환경 인증된 상품을 판매하는 외국 회사들은 친환경 인증되지 않은 상품을 판매하는 미국 회사들을 미국 시장에서 압도할 것이다)