9. Fuel-cell engines

리딩 지문 읽기 (3분)


Car manufacturers and governments have been eagerly seeking a replacement for the automobile’s main source of power, the internal-combustion engine. By far the most promising alternative source of energy for cars is the hydrogen-based fuel-cell engine, which uses hydrogen to create electricity that, in turn, powers the car. Fuel-cell engines have several advantages over internal-combustion engines and will probably soon replace them.
One of the main problems with the internal-combustion engine is that it relies on petroleum, either in the form of gasoline or diesel fuel. Petroleum is a finite resource; someday, we will run out of oil. The hydrogen needed for fuel-cell engines cannot easily be depleted. Hydrogen can be derived from various plentiful sources, including natural gas and even water. The fact that fuel-cell engines utilize easily available, renewable resources makes them particularly attractive.
Second, hydrogen-based fuel cells are attractive because they will solve many of the world’s pollution problems. An unavoidable by-product of burning oil is carbon dioxide, and carbon dioxide harms the environment. On the other hand, the only byproduct of fuel-cell engines is water.
Third, fuel-cell engines will soon be economically competitive because people will spend less money to operate a fuel-cell engine than they will to operate an internal-combustion engine. This is true for one simple reason: a fuel-cell automobile is nearly twice as efficient in using its fuel as an automobile powered by an internal-combustion engine is. In other words, the fuel-cell powered car requires only half the fuel energy that the internal-combustion powered car does to go the same distance.


리스닝 듣기



리스닝 스크립트

The reading is correct in pointing out the problems associated with oil-powered cars. Yes, oil is a finite resource, and yes, burning oil harms the environment. However, the reading is way too optimistic in its assessment of hydrogen-based fuel-cell engines. Hydrogen is not the solution to these problems.

First, hydrogen is not as easily available as the passage indicates. Although it’s present in common substances like water, it’s not directly useable in that form. For using a fuel-cell engine, hydrogen must first be obtained in a pure liquid state. This pure liquid hydrogen is a highly artificial substance. It’s technologically very difficult to produce and store liquid hydrogen. For example, it must be kept very cold at minus 253 degrees Celsius. Imagine the elaborate cooling technology that’s required for that! So hydrogen is not such a practical and easily available substance, is it?
Second, using hydrogen would not solve the pollution problems associated with cars. Why? Producing pure hydrogen creates a lot of pollution. To get pure hydrogen from water or natural gas, you have to use a purification process that requires lots of energy that’s obtained by burning coal or oil. And burning coal and oil creates lots of pollution. So although the cars would not pollute, the factories that generated the hydrogen for the cars would pollute.
Third, there won’t necessarily be any cost savings when you consider how expensive it is to manufacture the fuel-cell engine. That’s because fuel-cell engines require components made of platinum, a very rare and expensive metal. Without the platinum components in the engine, the hydrogen doesn’t undergo the chemical reaction that produces the electricity to power the automobile. All the efforts to replace platinum with a cheaper material have so far been unsuccessful.


30점을 위한 분석

리딩 주장
The most promising alternative fuel for cars is hydrogen-based fuel-cell engines, which have advantages over internal combustion engines.
(가장 전망있는 자동차의 대체 연료는 수소 기반 연료 전지 엔진임. 이것은 내부 연소 엔진에 비해 몇가지 장점을 가지고 있음)

첫번째 근거
First, unlike petroleum, a finite resource, hydrogen, a fuel for hydrogen-based fuel-cell engines, is plentiful and renewable.
(첫째, 유한한 자원인 석유와 다르게, 수소 기반 연료 전지 엔진의 연료인 수소는 풍부하고 재생가능함)

두번째 근거
Second, hydrogen-based fuel cells can help us solve pollution problems because it does not emit harmful gases and their only byproduct is water.
(둘째, 수소 기반 연료 전지는 환경 문제를 해결하는데 도움이 됨. 왜냐하면 그들은 유해한 가스를 방출하지 않음. 유일한 부산물은 물임)

세번째 근거
Third, considering the efficiency of fuel-cell engines, they will soon be economically competitive because a car with the engine only needs half the fuel that a car with the internal combustion engine requires.
(셋째, 연료 전지 엔진의 효율성을 고려하면, 이 엔진은 곧 가격면에서 경쟁력을 가질 것임. 왜냐하면 이 엔진을 장착한 차는 내부 연소 엔진을 가진 차가 사용하는 연료의 오직 반 정도밖에 연료를 소모하지 않기 때문임)


리스닝 반박
Hydrogen-based fuel-cell engines are not the solution to the problems caused by oil-powered cars.
(수소 기반 연료 전지 엔진은 석유로 동력을 받는 차가 일으키는 문제를 풀 수 있는 해결책이 아님)

첫번째 근거
First, it is not practical nor easy for us to obtain hydrogen because to be used as a fuel-cell engine, hydrogen must be obtained in a pure liquid state, and with our present technology, it is hard to produce and store liquid hydrogen.
(첫째, 수소를 얻는 것은 실용적이지도 쉽지도 않음. 왜냐하면 연료 전지 엔진으로 사용되기 위해서 수소는 순수한 액체 상태여야 함. 그러나 현재 기술로 그것을 생산하기 어렵고 또한 보관하기도 어려움)

두번째 근거
Second, when producing hydrogen, a lot of pollution is created because to extract pure hydrogen, a lot of coal or oil is used. Therefore, hydrogen cannot be one of the solutions to pollution.
(둘째, 수소를 생산할 때 많은 오염이 발생함. 왜냐하면 순수 수소를 추출하기 위해서 많은 석탄 또는 석유가 사용되기 때문. 그러므로 수소는 환경 오염을 해결하 해답이 아님)

세번째 근거
Third, since fuel-cell engines require components made of platinum which is rare and expensive, the cost related to producing the engine would not become economical or feasible.
(셋째, 수소 연료 전지 엔진은 비싼 희소성이 있는 플래티넘으로 만들어진 구성 부품을 필요로 하기 때문에, 그 엔진을 생산하는 것과 관련된 비용은 저렴하지 않음)