10. The cane toad

리딩 지문 읽기 (3분)


The cane toad is a large (1.8 kg) amphibian species native to Central and South America. It was deliberately introduced to Australia in 1935 with the expectation that it would protect farmers’ crops by eating harmful insects. Unfortunately, the toad multiplied rapidly, and a large cane toad population now threatens small native animals that are not pests. Several measures have been proposed to stop the spread of the cane toad in Australia.

One way to prevent the spread of the toad would be to build a national fence. A fence that blocks the advance of the toads will prevent them from moving into those parts of Australia that they have not yet colonized. This approach has been used before: a national fence was erected in the early part of the twentieth century to prevent the spread of rabbits, another animal species that was introduced in Australia from abroad and had a harmful impact on its native ecosystems.

Second, the toads could be captured and destroyed by volunteers. Cane toads can easily be caught in simple traps and can even be captured by hand. Young toads and cane toad eggs are even easier to gather and destroy, since they are restricted to the water. If the Australian government were to organize a campaign among Australian citizens to join forces to destroy the toads, the collective effort might stop the toad from spreading.

Third, researchers are developing a disease-causing virus to control the cane toad populations. This virus will be specially designed: although it will be able to infect a number of reptile and amphibian species, it will not harm most of the infected species; it will specifically harm only the cane toads. The virus will control the population of cane toads by preventing them from maturing and reproducing.


리스닝 듣기




리스닝 스크립트

1. The cane toad won’t be as easy to get rid of as the reading suggests.
2. The measures proposed by the reading are likely either to be unsuccessful or to cause unwanted environmental damage.
3. First of all, a national fence probably won’t stop the spread of the toad.
4. That’s because young toads and toad eggs are found in rivers and streams.
5. No matter where the fence is located, at some point there will be rivers or streams flowing from one side to the other.
6. These waterways will be able to carry the young toads and their eggs to the other side.
7. Since it’s only necessary for a few young toads or eggs to get through the fence in order to establish population on the other side, the fence is unlikely to be effective.
8. Secondly, a massive group of volunteers could have success trapping and destroying toads.
9. But it’s likely that these untrained volunteers would inadvertently destroy many of Australia’s native frogs.
10. Some of which are endangered.
11. It’s not always easy to tell the cane toad apart from native frogs especially when it’s young.
12. Third, using the virus is a bad idea because it could have terrible consequences for cane toads in their original habitat in Central and South America.
13. You might be wondering how a virus released in Australia can cause harm in the America.
14. Well, Australian reptiles and amphibians are often transported to other continents by researchers or pet collectors for example.
15. Once the animals infected by the virus reach Central and South America, the virus will attack the native cane toads and devastate their populations.
16. That would be and ecological disaster because in the America cane toads are a native species and a vital part of the ecosystem.
17. So if they are eliminated, the whole ecosystem will suffer.



30점을 위한 분석

(리딩 주장)
There are several measures proposed to stop the spread of the cane toad in Australia which threatens small native animals. (작은 토종 동물을 위협하는 호주에 있는 수수 두꺼비의 확장을 막을 수 있는 몇가지 방법이 있다)

(첫번째 근거)
Building a national fence will prevent toads from moving into areas of Australia not colonized by toads. (국영 울타리를 세우는 것은 두꺼비가 호주의 다른 지역으로 퍼지는 것을 막을 수 있다)

(두번째 근거)
Volunteers could capture and remove toads by gathering young toads and cane toad eggs. (자원봉사자들이 새끼 수수 두꺼비나 수수 두꺼비 알을 잡아서 없앨 수 있다)

(세번째 근거)
A disease-causing virus, which will harm only the cane toads, can be used to control the cane toad populations. (질병을 유발하는 바이러스를 수수 두꺼비에게 주입해서 수수 두꺼비 인구를 통제할 수 있다)


(리스닝 주장)
The success of the measures proposed by the reading is low and the measures might trigger unwanted environmental damage. (리딩에서 제기된 방법들이 성공할 지 의심스러우며 그 방법들은 원치않는 환경적인 피해를 일으킬 수 있다)

(첫번째 근거)
A national fence is not likely to stop the spread of the toad because young toads and toad eggs can be carried by rivers and streams that run to the other side of the country. (국영 울타리는 그 두꺼비의 확산을 막을 수 없다. 왜냐하면 새끼 두꺼비나 두꺼비 알은 강이나 개울을 통해 다른 곳으로 옮겨질 수 있기 때문이다)

(두번째 근거)
Untrained volunteers would unintentionally destroy many of Australia’s native frogs because it is hard to distinguish the cane toads and native frogs. (훈련되지 않은 자원 봉사자들은 호주의 토종 개구리에게 피해를 입힐 수 있다. 왜냐하면 자원 봉사자들은 수수 두꺼비와 호주 토종 개구리를 잘 구별하지 못하기 때문이다)

(세번째 근거)
If transported to the Americas, the virus released in Australia can attack cane toads in the Americas and destroy their populations as well. Considering cane toads are a native species to the Americas and vital to the ecosystem, their elimination will result in the destruction of their whole ecosystem. (호주에서 사용되었던 바이러스가 수수 두꺼비의 고향인 아메리카 대륙으로 온다면 아메리카에 있는 수수 두꺼비 인구를 파괴해서 전체 생태계에 재앙을 야기할 수 있다)