Types of Chemical Reactions

Types of Chemical Reactions

A chemical response is a process that always results in the conversion of reactants into product or products. The substance or substances initially concerned in a chemical reaction are called reactants. A type of a chemical response is usually characterised by the type of chemical change, and it yields one or more products which are, usually, totally different from the reactants.

Typically speaking, chemical reactions encompass adjustments that strictly contain the motion of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds. Chemical equations are often used to describe the chemical transformations of elementary particles that happen during the reaction.

Chemical modifications are a results of chemical reactions. All chemical reactions involve a change in substances and a change in energy. However, neither matter nor energy is created or destroyed in a chemical reaction. There are so many chemical reactions that it is useful to categorise them into totally different types including the widely used terms for describing frequent reactions.

Combination response or synthesis reaction: it is a reaction in which 2 or more chemical components or compounds unite to form a more complicated product.

Example: N2 + three H2 ‘ 2 NH3

Isomerisation response: is a reaction in which a chemical compound undergoes a structural rearrangement without any change in its net atomic composition.

Example: trans-2-butene and cis-2-butene are isomers.

Chemical decomposition reaction or analysis: is a response in which a compound is decomposed into smaller compounds or parts:

Instance: 2 H2O ‘ 2 H2 + O2

Single displacement or substitution: this type of reaction is characterised by a component being displaced out of a compound by a more reactive element.

Instance: 2 Na(s) + 2 HCl(aq) ‘ 2 NaCl(aq) + H2(g)

Metathesis or Double displacement reaction: represents a response in which compounds trade ions or bonds to form different compounds

Examples: NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) ‘ NaNO3(aq) + AgCl(s)

Acid-base reactions: broadly these reactions are characterized as reactions between an acid and a base, can have different definitions depending on the acid-base concept employed. Some of the most common are:

Arrhenius definition: Acids dissociate in water releasing H3O+ ions; bases dissociate in water releasing OH- ions.

Brønsted-Lowry definition: Acids are proton (H+) donors; bases are proton acceptors.

Lewis definition: Acids are electron-pair acceptors; bases are electron-pair donors.

Instance: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) ‘ NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

Redox reactions: are reactions in which modifications in oxidation numbers of atoms in concerned species occur. Those reactions can usually be interpreted as switch of electrons between totally different molecular sites or species.

Example: 2 S2O32(aq) + I2(aq) ‘ S4O62(aq) + 2 I(aq)

In this case, I2 is reduced to I- and S2O32- (thiosulfate anion) is oxidized to S4O62-.

Combustion reaction: it is a kind of redox reaction in which any flamable substance combines with an oxidizing component, normally oxygen, to generate heat and form oxidized products.

Instance: C3H8 + 5 O2 ‘ 3 CO2 + four H2O

Different types of chemical reactions include organic reactions which are present in organic chemistry.

Natural reactions compose a wide number of reactions involving compounds which have carbon as the principle factor of their molecular structure. In opposition to inorganic reactions, natural chemistry reactions are labeled in massive part by the types of the functional groups that exist within each compound. In this case the reactions are described by showing the mechanisms by way of which the adjustments take place.

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