Types of Chemical Reactions

Types of Chemical Reactions

A chemical response is a process that always leads to the conversion of reactants into product or products. The substance or substances initially concerned in a chemical response are called reactants. A type of a chemical reaction is normally characterised by the type of chemical change, and it yields one or more products which are, in general, different from the reactants.

Typically speaking, chemical reactions encompass adjustments that strictly involve the motion of electrons within the forming and breaking of chemical bonds. Chemical equations are sometimes used to describe the chemical transformations of elementary particles that happen throughout the reaction.

Chemical adjustments are a result of chemical reactions. All chemical reactions involve a change in substances and a change in energy. Nonetheless, neither matter nor energy is created or destroyed in a chemical reaction. There are so many chemical reactions that it is helpful to categorise them into different types including the widely used terms for describing common reactions.

Combination reaction or synthesis reaction: it is a reaction in which 2 or more chemical elements or compounds unite to form a more complex product.

Example: N2 + three H2 ‘ 2 NH3

Isomerisation response: is a response in which a chemical compound undergoes a structural rearrangement without any change in its net atomic composition.

Instance: trans-2-butene and cis-2-butene are isomers.

Chemical decomposition response or evaluation: is a reaction in which a compound is decomposed into smaller compounds or elements:

Example: 2 H2O ‘ 2 H2 + O2

Single displacement or substitution: this type of response is characterised by a component being displaced out of a compound by a more reactive element.

Example: 2 Na(s) + 2 HCl(aq) ‘ 2 NaCl(aq) + H2(g)

Metathesis or Double displacement reaction: represents a response in which two compounds alternate ions or bonds to form completely different compounds

Examples: NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) ‘ NaNO3(aq) + AgCl(s)

Acid-base reactions: broadly these reactions are characterised as reactions between an acid and a base, can have different definitions depending on the acid-base concept employed. Among the commonest are:

Arrhenius definition: Acids dissociate in water releasing H3O+ ions; bases dissociate in water releasing OH- ions.

Brønsted-Lowry definition: Acids are proton (H+) donors; bases are proton acceptors.

Lewis definition: Acids are electron-pair acceptors; bases are electron-pair donors.

Instance: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) ‘ NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

Redox reactions: are reactions in which changes in oxidation numbers of atoms in involved species occur. Those reactions can often be interpreted as transfer of electrons between different molecular sites or species.

Example: 2 S2O32(aq) + I2(aq) ‘ S4O62(aq) + 2 I(aq)

In this case, I2 is reduced to I- and S2O32- (thiosulfate anion) is oxidized to S4O62-.

Combustion response: it is a kind of redox response in which any combustible substance combines with an oxidizing element, normally oxygen, to generate heat and form oxidized products.

Instance: C3H8 + 5 O2 ‘ 3 CO2 + four H2O

Other types of chemical reactions embrace organic reactions which are present in natural chemistry.

Organic reactions compose a wide number of reactions involving compounds which have carbon as the principle aspect in their molecular structure. In opposition to inorganic reactions, organic chemistry reactions are classified in large part by the types of the functional groups that exist within each compound. In this case the reactions are described by showing the mechanisms by way of which the adjustments take place.

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